pool ionizer, swimming pool purifiers, ionization, swimming pool sanitizers, water,,treatment, automatic electronic swimming pool purification, chemical free water purification, environmentally safe swimming pool sanitation, algicides, water disinfection chemicals, spa, purifier, spa purification, spa sanitizer, spa hot tub water treatment, hot tub purifier, chlorine free, water treatment, Legionella pneumophila

…Eliminate Hazardous Chemicals!

Chlorine A highly irritating, greenish-yellow gaseous element, used to purify water, as a disinfectant, a bleaching agent, and in the manufacturing of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride.

  • For nearly 100 years, chlorine is perceived as the only way to disinfect water in swimming pools.
  • When chlorine was first used in pools, nobody knew how destructive it would be to our bodies and the environment.
  • Studies have linked chlorine with cancer, high blood pressure, anemia, heart disease, and strokes.
  • Scientists report chlorine as a leading cause of erosion of the Earth's ozone layer.
  • A drive to bann chlorine has become one of the most significant environmental fights in decades.
  • Chlorine's actual effectiveness has been questioned since it will not penetrate and kill large groups of bacteria, nor will it effectively kill viruses.

When you add chlorine to the pool it reacts with ammonia, organic matter and other contaminants in the water. This combined form of chlorine known as chloramines, a cancer causing carcinogen, have little sanitizing power and are actually the cause of some unpleasant problems associated with chlorine.

To eliminate chloramines you must add more chlorine – generally ten times the normal amount necessary! This results in costly investments into chlorine, algaecides and stabilizers - not to mention the cost of maintenance and labor.

The bottom line…
Nobody likes chlorine!
Nobody likes to swim in chlorine!

Is there a safer, more effective and economical alternative? YES

The ClearWater Pool Purifier is the answer to your chlorine problems. This Purifier eliminates the constant battle of shocking your pool, eliminates dangerous chloramines and solves the problem of effectively killing bacteria and viruses.

Once you change over to a ClearWater pool purification system, you'll notice the different immediately. You will never want to swim in a chlorinate pool again. You will swim in water that easily exceeds EC requirements for drinking water.

Performance Comparison Chlorine vs. ClearWater Purifier



Harmful to eyes



Dry, itchy, irritated skin



Dry, brittle, beached hair



Fades swim suits



Unpleasant to smell






Explosive, unsafe to handle



Dangerous to store



Toxic to landscaping



Linked to cancer



Toxic to lungs



Constant hassle



Requires daily maintenance



Absorbs through skin



Leaks hazardous benzine from pipes



Forms carcinogenic thrihalomethane



Create chloramines



Requires use of cyanuric acid



Harmful to the environment



Costs $100's a year to operate



Kills algae



Kills bacteria



Kills viruses



“ClearWater Enviro Technology is obviously the future of pool disinfection as more and more people become aware of the terrible side effects of chlorine in the human body and on the environment.”
   Buzz Alrin, Apollo II astronaut.


More Chlorine Articles:
Pool staff in asthma link
Is Chlorine Safe For My Pool?
We are quite convinced‚...
Water Related News
Study: Parasite survives


You are in:  Health
Tuesday, 30 April, 2002, 17:05 GMT 18:05 UK

Pool staff in asthma link

People working in indoor swimming pools could be at risk of developing asthma, researchers suggest.

A study by Birmingham doctors suggests chemicals called chloramines could cause occupational asthma.

The paper, published in the European Respiratory Journal (ERJ), suggests regular swimmers could also be at risk.

It concentrates on just three cases, but the researchers, from Birmingham's Heartlands Hospital, said it opened the door for other studies in the area.

Chloramines are produced when chlorine reacts with polluting proteins from swimmers that enter the water from swimmers' bodies from sweat and urine - they cause the characteristic smell of pools.

Chlorine-based chemicals are used to ensure the water is disinfected so infections cannot be passed between swimmers.

The researchers say the amount of chloramines present in the air depends on factors such as swimmers' personal hygiene and the how often the water is changed.

Although there are various kinds of the chemical, nitrogen trichloride is the most common, and the kind the researchers believe causes asthma in indoor swimming pools.

Asthma and work link

The team monitored two lifeguards and a swimming teacher who worked at different pools.

All three had worked in swimming pools for some years before developing asthmatic symptoms.

However, all had begun to suffer cough and wheezing symptoms at work which improved when they were on holiday.

The three were asked to measure their peak expiratory flow (PEF), the maximum volume of air that they were able to force out of their lungs in a second, every two hours for two weeks.

Tests were also carried out using nitrogen trichloride.

In two of the three cases, the researchers found a significant relation between the subjects' asthma and their work.

In the third case, the person was not able to carry out the PEF checks in full because they suffered from wheezing within half an hour of arriving at the pool and had to use an inhaler.

In all three, the nitrogen trichloride tests produced an immediate asthmatic reaction.

None had a reaction to chlorine itself.

Chlorine an 'irritant'

Dr Sherwood Burge, who led the researchers told BBC News Online: "If you have asthma, which is worse when you go swimming, it could be linked to the water in the pool."

He added: "This shows that air in swimming pools is a possible cause of asthma."

Dr Burge said further studies needed to be done, looking at people who worked in swimming pools.

The researchers say their findings should not result in "extreme measures" such as preventing children swimming.

But they suggest disinfectants used in pools should be more carefully chosen and that air and water should be replaced as often as possible.

Professor Benoit Nemery, of the Department of Occupational Medicine of Leuven Hospital, writing in the ERJ, said the Birmingham study was significant, despite its size: "It serves as evidence that asthma caused by indoor swimming pools could be an occupational disease and there is reason to believe that cases are more common than they might seem."

Ralph Riley, head of the National Pool Water Treatment Advisory Group said: "We have known for a long time that chloramines can trigger, rather than cause asthma. There's nothing in this report to show that asthma has been caused by swimming pools."

He said water was constantly being cleaned, and that air was also changed four to six times per hour.

Mr Riley added the industry was constantly looking at ways of reducing the levels of chloramines whilst retaining the protection against infection in the water.


Do you like to swim? In a pool? Do you have a pool or a spa? All good and well and fun too. To keep your pool and spa clean, free of bacteria and clear you probably use chlorine and other chemicals? But are you aware of the dangers of chlorine and other chemicals? Numerous scientific studies report that chlorinated water is a skin irritant and can be associated with rashes like eczema. Chlorinated water can destroy polyunsaturated fatty acids and vitamin E in the body while generating toxins capable of free radical damage (oxidation). This might explain why supplementation of the diet with essential fatty acids lke flax seed oil, evening primrose oil, borage oil and antitoxidants like vitamin E, selenium and others helps so many cases of eczema and dry skin.Chlorinated water destroys much of the intestinal flora, the friendly bacteria that help in the digestion of food and which protect the body from harmful pathogens. These bacteria are also responsible for the manufacture of several important vitamins like vitamin B12 and vitamin K. It is not uncommon for chronic digestive disorders as well as chronic skin conditions like acne, psoriasis, seborrheoa and eczema to clear up or be significantly improved by switching to un-chlorinated drinking water and supplementing the diet with lactobacillus and acidophilus and bifidus.Chlorinated water contains chemical compounds called trihalomethanes which are carcinogens resulting from the combination of chlorine with organic compounds in water. These chemicals, also known as organochlorides, do not degrade very well and are generally stored in the fatty tissues of the body (breast, other fatty areas, mother's milk, blood and semen). Organochlorides can cause mutations by altering DNA, supress immune function and interfere with the natural controls of cell growth.Chlorine has been documented to aggravate asthma, especially in those children who make frequent use of chlorinated swimming pools. Several studies also link chlorine and chlorinated by-products to a greater incidence of bladder, breast and bowel cancer as well as malignant melanoma. One study even links the use of chlorinated tap water to congenital cardiac anomalies.The following is research data related to swimming which may be of interest: CHLORINE TOXICITY: What Is Known Exercising competitive swimmers absorb toxic levels of chlorine products in the course of a training session.  Training two or more times a day will not allow the toxins to be completely cleared from the body in most swimmers.  Children inhale more air per unit of body weight than adults. Young children absorb relatively greater amounts of toxins than older swimmers and therefore, are at greater risk. In hyper-chlorinated pools, even dental enamel can be eroded because of the increased acidity in swimmers in training.  Exercise intensity and number of sessions increase the toxic concentrations in competitive swimmers.  Greater toxin absorption occurs through the skin than through breathing. However, the breathing action alone is sufficient to cause hypersensitivity and "asthma-like" respiratory conditions in at least some swimmers.  Over chlorination is particularly hazardous to the health of swimmers.


posted May 28,                                          2004 The Green Guide Institute 2003          

Is Chlorine Safe For My Pool?
by Carmela M. Federico

Piers Keegan asks:

What harm results from using chlorine in swimming pools?

Piers Keegan
Las Vegas, NV

The Green Guide responds:

While swimming in a bacteria and pathogen-filled pool poses clear threats to health, chlorine pool sanitizing products are not without risks. Some very harmful substances—dioxins and furans, for example, and also trihalomethanes—can arise when chlorine products come in contact with organic matter, such as leaves and dirt. Dioxins and furans are extremely toxic chemicals, and are among the "dirty dozen" chemicals targeted for elimination in the 2001 Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Trihalomethanes—including the carcinogen chloroform—are formed when chlorine reacts with carbon-containing organic matter. Some studies suggest that trihalomethanes may cause miscarriages, birth defects, and bladder and rectal cancers.

Both chlorine and trihalomethanes (predominantly, the carcinogen chloroform) may be found in chlorinated pools, and can be inhaled or absorbed through the skin. Too much chlorine in a pool also can cause skin irritation, eye irritation, and both short and longer-term respiratory problems: coughing, difficulty breathing, and "swimmer's asthma." In fact, in a study published this June in Occupational and Environmental Medicine, Belgian researchers found that young swimmers had high levels of proteins which destroy cellular barriers in the lungs, making them more permeable to allergens which can bring on asthmatic attacks. The trigger for these proteins seems to be nitrogen trichloride, a gas released in the interaction between chlorine and ammonia or ammonium compounds from urine, sweat, and other organic sources. More disturbing still, the researchers found that children who swam most frequently had protein levels similar to those found in regular smokers. The study concluded that regular swimming in chlorinated pools by young children resulted in an increased risk of developing asthma. The authors also suspect a link to the rising incidence of childhood asthma and allergic diseases found in industrialized nations.

Some suggestions for healthier pool maintenance and swimming:

• Avoid chlorinator tablets - they can produce high concentrations of chlorine that increase the risk of adverse health effects.

• Do not over-chlorinate, and test your water frequently to maintain desired level.

• Ozonators help reduce the concentrations of chlorine needed to keep the pool sanitary, and result in fewer reports of respiratory distress among swimmers. However, an Environmental Health Perspectives article reports that ozonators do produce bromate, a possible human carcinogen.

• Chlorine-free pool maintenance systems exist. While at present, their effectiveness does not seem to be assured by Consumer Reports or the Consumer Product Safety Commission, ask the advice of your pool products salesperson should you wish to consider one of the many chlorine-free options available.

• Do your best to reduce the organic matter in your pool. Use covers, remove leaves and dead insects frequently, etc.

• Swim in outdoor pools, or in indoor pools that have excellent ventilation. Indoor pools and poor ventilation seem to produce more adverse effects.

• Don't swim in highly chlorinated pools every day - if you do so, you risk build up of trihalomethanes and chlorine/chlorine by-products. As these substances do not bioaccumulate, swimming intermittently gives your body a chance to lighten your load.

• If you swim vigorously, you increase your chances of absorbing trihalomethanes and your chances of developing respiratory problems. Children, who breathe proportionately more air for their size than adults, also are at increased risk of unsafe exposure to chlorine and chlorine by-products. It's especially important for children and vigorous swimmers to exercise the above precautions.

• Reduce your overall exposure to chlorine and chlorine by-products by keeping your drinking water in a pitcher (which allows some products to evaporate) and by using filters on your drinking water tap and on your showerhead.


The National Sanitation Foundation (www.nsf.org) provides certification on pools, hot tubs and spas and on water purification systems. oem.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/60/6/385


Bernard, A. et al. "Lung hyperpermeability and asthma prevalence in schoolchildren: unexpected associations with the attendance at indoor chlorinated swimming pools." Occupational and Environmental Medicine, 2003; 60, 385-394. oem.bmjjournals.com/cgi/content/full/60/6/385

Lindstrom, A.B., Pleil, J.D., & Berkoff, D.C. (1997). "Alveolar breathe sampling and analysis to assess trihalomethane exposures during competitive swimming training." Environmental Health Perspectives, 105(6), 636-642.

Motavalli, Jim. "Swimming Upstream: New Products Fight the Backyard Pool's Chlorine Addiction." E Magazine, May-June 1998. www.emagazine.com/may-june_1998/0598gl_ecohome.html

Rushall, Brent S. "Chlorine Toxicity: A Matter That Should Be Of Concern To All Swimmers, Coaches, and Parents." www-rohan.sdsu.edu/dept/coachsci/swimming/chlorine/chlorine.htm.

Tibbetts, John. "What's in the Water: The Disinfectant Dilemma." Environmental Health Perspectives, Vol. 103, No. 1 (January 1995). ehpnet1.niehs.nih.gov/docs/1995/103-1/focus1.html

                                                            © Copyright 2004 The Green Guide Institute. Home Current Issue Community Community

The "Chlorinated" Water Issue

The April 1987 issue of NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Magazine contains a 31 page report that is frightening to anyone concerned with health: "We are in the midst of a chemical revolution in which some 65,000 commercial compounds enter our environment each year. Some are proven carcinogens - cancer causing substances - and many more are suspected of being so. Yet, only 8 chemicals are listed as hazardous...

...and regulated at their source by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)."

Dr. Roy E. Albert, chairman of the EPS Carcinogen Assessment Group quoted: "The record of EPA regulation is abysmal. But, the research is expensive and funding we are now getting is inadequate." The story ends with a sobering viewpoint: "We are our own guinea pigs."

Government and Medicine Viewpoints Differ About One Chemical--  CHLORINE!

The Georgia Department of Natural Resources, Environmental Protection Division enforces "RULES FOR SAFE DRINKING WATER" under the GEORGIA SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT (PL93-523). Section 391-3-5-.14(2) of Georgia State Law reads as follows:
"(2) The supplier of water must continuously chlorinate the water to maintain a residual of free chlorine in all parts of the distribution system in the amount of at least 0.5 parts per million, and such additional amounts as may be determined necessary by the Division, unless other means of disinfection have been approved by the Director."

Doctor Patrick Flanagan, named at age 17 as one of the Top 10 Scientists in America by Life Magazine, recently advised in his book ELIXIR OF THE AGELESS that: "Drinking tap water is a slow form of suicide, today's tap water is yesterday's toilet water, too thin to plow and too thick to drink. Chemicals (chlorine and fluorides) used to treat water are positive charged cationic electrolytes that are potentially destructive to the colloidal balance when ingested into the human system. As one result, people die....
....inch by inch, not really knowing what is wrong!"

Marshall Mandell, M.D., recently published in his book, 5 DAY ALLERGY RELIEF SYSTEM: "Most cases of so-called psychosomatic illness are allergic and nutritional in origin - attributed to water borne chlorine" and that: "in short....
....everything man drinks is polluted with chemical agents that are foreign to his chemistry, and he is suffering the consequences of possessing a body that is incapable of handling the by-products..."

Dr. William Campbell Douglass, M.D., head of Georgia's oldest (five generation) practicing medical doctor family, began warning his patients against drinking chlorinated tap water during the early 1970's:
"....Chlorine is a very strong oxidizing agent, like bleach, and its effect of the blood vessels is one of destruction...it kills our cells..."

Jonathan V. Wright, M.D., advises readers in the HEALTH FREEDOM NEWS, that the long term effects of exposure to "chlorine in the water supply have scarcely been investigated" and that it (the chlorine) "in water combines very easily with various living substances, forming new organic compounds." Doctor Wright advises that while "chlorination is a necessary evil in public water that does not mean it has to be in you. It shouldn't be." And:
"I don't think it's wise to expose yourself to the risk of chlorine, fluoride, and other miscellaneous chemicals in your water supply."

Richard A.Kunin, M.D., in his recent book MEGA NUTRITION (A Program to Prevent Disease) said this about chlorine: "...even in minute quantities sufficient to kill germs, chlorine can undermine the body's defenses against arteriosclerosis. Chlorine in drinking water creates electrically charged molecules called free radicals...
...that can damage the intima of blood vessels and so create the environment for plaque formation..."

H. Ray Evers, M.D. was recently quoted: "the chances are that cardiovascular disease will be the cause of death in 3 out of 5 people and that this is contributed to by environmental pollution in water which can add to the harmful toxic build-up in body chemistry." Dr. Evers forewarns:
"The bottom line is clear: of all the ways you could die, there is a 60 percent chance that cardiovascular disease will kill you."

Richard A. Passwater states on page 162 of SUPERNUTRITION that many carcinogenic compounds are washed into our streams which ...
"...were once thought to be harmless but are now known to react with the chlorine used to treat the water we drink to form dangerous carcinogens..."

Dr. Michael Alvania of the National Cancer Institute in Bethesda, Md. conducted a study of 7 counties in New York and reported:

"...what you could say without any equivocation is that my study demonstrated that people living in areas served by chlorinated water have twice the risk of contracting cancer..."

Researcher Joseph Price, M.D. stated that autopsies performed on U.S. soldiers who were killed in Vietnam showed that many had over 50% arterial blockage, although only in their late teens or the early twenties - caused by chlorine in their drinking water. Doctor Price conducted his own study on the effects of chlorine and he reported that while it is a slow death: "sooner or later chlorine is going to kill you" ... and "...to sum everything up, I must say that chlorine in your drinking water is the absolute cause of heart attack and strokes..."

Note: Near 3,000 deaths in America occur each day from consequences of these diseases.

NEW SClENTlST 18 September 1986
Ian Anderson

"Taking long hot showers is a health risk, according to research presented last week in Anaheim, California, at a meeting of the American Chemical Society. Showers--and to a lesser extent baths--lead to a greater exposure to toxic chemicals contained in water supplies than does drinking the water. The chemicals evaporate out of the water and are inhaled. they can also spread through the house and be inhaled by others. House holders can receive 6 to 100 times more of the chemical by breathing the air around showers and bath than they would by drinking the water."

U.S. NEWS & WORLD REPORT - Jul 29 1991
Is Your Water Safe - The Dangerous State of Your Water 

"Studies indicate the suspect chemicals can also be inhaled and absorbed through the skin during showering and bathing." 
"Ironically, even the Chlorine widely used to disinfect water produces Carcinogenic traces." "Though 7 out of 10 Americans drink chlorinated water, its safety over the long term is uncertain. ''Drinking chlorinated water may as much as double the risk of the Bladder Cancer, which strikes 40,000 people a year.

BOTTOM LINE/August 87 
Dr. John Andelman, Ph.D..

'!A long, hot shower can be dangerous. The toxic chemicals are inhaled in high concentrations."

Consumer Reports Books

"On one hand, chlorination has freed civilisation from the constant dangers of waterborne epidemics. On the other hand in the mid - 70s scientists discovered that chlorination could create carcinogens in water."
"80% of the population drinks chlorinated water."
"There was a higher incidence of cancer of the oesophagus, rectum, breast, and larynx and of Hodgkins Disease among those drinking chlorinated surface waters."
"Volatile organics can evaporate from water in a shower or bath."
"Conservative calculations indicate that inhalation exposures can be as significant as exposure from drinking the water, that is, one can be exposed to just as much by inhalation during a shower as by drinking 2 litres of water a day."
"People who shower frequently could be exposed through ingestion, inhalation and/or dermal absorption."

Dr. Halina Brown

"Skin absorption of contaminant has been underestimated and ingestion may not constitute the sole or even primary route of exposure."

Dr. Lance Wallace

"Showering is suspected as the primary cause of elevated levels of chloroform in nearly every home because of the chlorine in the water."

Centre For Study of Responsive Law

"A Professor of Water Chemistry at the University of Pittsburgh claims that exposure to vaporised chemicals in the water supplies through showering, bathing, and inhalation is 100 times greater than through drinking the water."
"As chlorine is added to kill pathogenic micro-organisms, the highly reactive chlorine combines with fatty acids and carbon fragments to form a variety of toxic compounds, which comprise about 30% of the chlorination by-products.
"During the mid-1970s monitoring efforts began to identify widespread toxic contamination of the nation's drinking water supplies, epidemiological studies began to suggest a link between ingestion of toxic chemicals in the water and elevated cancer mortality risks. Since those studies were completed a variety of additional studies have strengthened the statistical connection between consumption of toxins in water and elevated cancer risks. Moreover, this basic concern has been heightened by other research discoveries.

Janet Raloff

"The National Academy of Sciences estimate that 200 to 1000 people die in the United States each year from cancers caused by ingesting the contaminants in water. The major health threat posed by these pollutants is far more likely to be from their inhalation as air pollutants. The reason that emissions are high is that because water droplets dispersed by the shower head have a larger surface-too-value ratio than water streaming into the bath."

Dr. J.M. Price, M.D

"The cause of atherosclerosis and resulting heart attacks and strokes is none other than the ubiquitous chlorine in our drinking water."

Dr. A.T. Palin, Ph.D.. (O.B.E.)

"In the vast majority of cases where germ-free water is required whether for public supply, or in the swimming pool, the process of disinfection will involve the use of chlorine in one form or another." 

Dr. N.W. Walker, D.S.

"Chlorine gas was despicably used during WWI. When the war was over, the use of chlorine was diverted to poisoning germs in our drinking water. All water supplies throughout the country were chlorinated. The combination of chlorine (when in drinking water) and animal fats results in atherosclerosis, heart attacks, and death." 

Dr. J.M. Price, MD.

"Chlorine is the greatest crippler and killer of modern times. While it prevented epidemics of one disease, ill was creating another. Two decades ago, after the start of chlorinating our drinking water in 1904. The present epidemic of heart trouble, cancer and senility began."


"Cancer risk among people drinking chlorinated water is 93% higher than among those whose water does not contain chlorine."

Dr. Martin Fox

"Drinking tap water that is chlorinated is hazardous, if not deadly to your health."

Francis T. Mayo, Director

"Known carcinogens are found in drinking water as a direct consequence of the practice of chlorination. A long established public health practice for the disinfection of drinking water."

Dr. Riddle, Ph.D.

"Chlorine is used almost universally in the treatment of public drinking water because of its toxic effect on harmful bacteria and other waterborne, disease-causing organisms. But there is a growing body of scientific evidence that shows that chlorine in drinking water may actually pose greater long term dangers than those for which it was used to eliminate. These effects of chlorine may result from either ingestion or absorption through the skin. Scientific studies have linked chlorine and chlorination by-products to cancer of the bladder, liver, stomach, rectum, and colon, as well as heart disease, atherosclerosis (hardening of the arteries), anaemia, high blood pressure, and allergic reactions. There is also evidence that shows that chlorine can destroy protein in our body and cause adverse effects on skin and hair.
The presence of chlorine in water may also contribute to the formation of chloramines in the water, which can cause taste and odour problems.
"Since chlorine is required by public health regulations to be present in all public drinking water supplies, it is up to the individual to remove it at the point-of-use in the home.

1. "SHOWERS POSE A RISK TO HEALTH", lan Anderson, New Scientist, 9/18/86
2. "NON - lNGESTlON EXPOSURE TO CHEMICALS IN POTABLE WATER" Julian Andelman Working Paper 84-03, University of Pittsburgh, 1984.
4. :"TOXIC SHOWERS AND BATHS", Janet Raloff. Science News, Vol. 130, Page 190.
5. "WATR", John F. Ashton and Ronald S. Laura. Nature & Health, 1988.
7. "THE NADER REPORT - TROUBLED WATERS ON TAP", Duff Conacher and Assc.Centre For Study of Responsive Law, January 1988.
8. "DID YOU KNOW THAT... A LONG HOT SHOWER", Bottom Line/Personal, Aug.15, 1987
9 .MADEMOISELLE, Prior to August 15, 1987.
10. "CORONARIES/CHOLESTEROUCHLORINE", Joseph M. Price, Jove Book,Alta Enterprises, 1969.
11. "WATER CAN UNDERMINE YOUR HEALTH", N. W. Walker D.S., Norwalk Press, 1974.
12. "WATER-SAFE TO DRINK? SAFE TO BATHE IN?", Kurt W. Donsbach D.C., PH., 1989.
15. "CANCER INCIDENCE AND TRIHALOMETHANE CONCENTRATIONS IN A PUBLIC DRINKING WATER SYSTEM", George L. Carlo. American Journal of Public health, Vol. 74, No. 5, 1984, PP. 479-484.
17. "REGIONAL VARIATION IN PERCUTANEOUS PENETRATION IN MAN: PESTICIDES", H.J. Maiback. Arch. Environ. Health, Vol. 23, Sep. 1971, P. 209.
19. "TEMPORAL VARIATIONS IN TRIHALOMETHANE CONTENT OF DRINKING WATER", V.L. Smith. Environs. SCI. & TechNet., Vol. 14 No. 2, 1987, PP. 190-196.
20. "THMS IN DRINKING WATER", J.A. Court. Environs. SCI & TechNet., Vol. 15, No. 3, 1981, PP. 268-274.
21. "VOLATILE SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICALS (VOCS)", K.V. Dyke. Water TechNet. Vol. 13, No. 4, Apr. 1990, P. 38.
22. "IS YOUR WATER SAFE?" Carpenter, Hedges, Crab, Really and Bounds. U.S. News & World Report, July 29, 1991, PP, 48-55.
23. "IS YOUR WATER SAFE TO DRINK?", Raymond Gabber. Consumer Reports Book, 1987.

Research > Water Related News

This section contains 3rd party news releases in relation to water treatment and health issues. Sources may vary based on topics and availability.


Legionella alert sites still shut
21 May 2004 - BBCNews (UK)

The Legionella bug is a rare form of pneumonia Two leisure centres in County Durham will remain closed to the public for a further 10 days after traces of Legionella bacteria were found.

Patient Contracts Legionnaire's Disease at Hospital - 23 Mar 2004 - The Associated Press

OKLAHOMA CITY (USA) - At least 13 people who stayed at an Oklahoma City hotel last week have tested positive for the bacteria that can cause Legionnaire's disease, state health officials said.

Showerhead Legionella Victim Named
04 Mar 2004 - PA News

A cancer patient who died of Legionnaires’ disease traced to a showerhead in a hospital building was named today.

Patient Contracts Legionnaire's Disease at Hospital - 18 Mar 2004 - PA News

<>A hospital patient has been diagnosed with Legionnaire’s disease, an NHS trust said today.

Criminal inquiry into legionnaires' outbreak in France - 08 Jan 2004 - The Guardian

Police opened a manslaughter inquiry yesterday into France's worst outbreak of legionnaires' disease, which has killed seven people and infected 59 more near the town of Lens in the north of the country.


Manager charged over legionnaires' deaths 11 Feb 2004 - The Guardian

<>A council official was charged with manslaughter yesterday in connection with an outbreak of legionnaires' disease which claimed seven lives in Barrow-in-Furness, Cumbria, in 2002. 

Killer bug feared in hospitals
26 Dec 2003 - Calgary Herald

Health-care officials here will meet Monday to consider testing all city hospitals for the potentially deadly legionella bacteria.

Two more Legionnaires' cases confirmed
02 Dec 2003 - icBirminghamTM

Two further cases of Legionnaires' disease have been diagnosed as part of an outbreak centred on a cider plant, taking the total number of people affected by the bug to 28.

Phoenix Widow Sues Tucson Resort
23 Oct 2003 - KGUN9

A Phoenix widow is suing the Westin La Paloma resort. Her attorney says the woman's husband died of Legionnaires' Disease, and believes the resort is responsible.

Shower head clue to man's legion death
9 Oct 2003 - Liverpool Echo

A LIVERPOOL pensioner, who died from Legionnaires' disease, is believed to have contracted it from an infected shower head at Broadgreen hospital.

Legion bug alert over city death
06 Oct 2003 - Liverpool Echo

A MAJOR health alert has been sparked at a Liverpool hospital after a pensioner died from Legionnaires' disease. The 85-year-old man began showing symptoms of the respiratory disease after being admitted to Broadgreen hospital.

Hospital in Legionnaires' alert
17 Sep 2003 - Newham Recorder, UK

... The bacteria Legionella – found in hot and cold water systems, air conditioning cooling systems, and ponds – was discovered in the water system at the ...

Hot Water Prevents Legionnaires' Disease
16 Sep 2003 - Good Housekeeping Magazine

. Stagnant water at 77 and 108 degrees as well as rust, scale, and other microorganisms can promote the growth of Legionella, a bacteria that causes Legionnaires ...

Legionnaires' cases increase in East
5 Sep 2003 - Akron Beacon Journal, OH

... US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suspects that the wet summer may be the reason why some states are seeing a doubling in the number of legionella ...

Legionnaires’ disease associated with a cruise liner
28 Aug 2003 - Eurosurveillance editorial office

... The number of cases of legionnaires’ disease in passengers who traveled on the Ocean Monarch cruise ship from 6-23 August is still three (1). One case has been confirmed by culture of the organism and the others by urinary antigen detection. ...

Pool chlorine linked to asthma epidemic
June 5th 2003

Chlorine used to disinfect indoor swimming pools could be one of the causes behind an astonishing surge in childhood asthma in developed countries in the past few decades, according to a new study...

"We are quite convinced‚ based on this study‚ that there is an association between cancer and chlorinated water." Medical College Of Wisconsin‚ Senior Research Team

The addition of chlorine to our water began in the late 1800s and by 1904 was the standard in water treatment‚ and for the most part remains so today.

We don‘t use chlorine because it‘s the safest or even the most effective means of disinfection‚ we use it because it is the cheapest. In spite of all our technological advances‚ we essentially still pour bleach into our water prior to use. The long-term effects of using chlorinated water have just recently been documented.

It is not uncommon to find more chlorine in tap water than is recommended safe for a swimming pool. A simple chlorine test kit from the local discount department store‚ around 6.00‚ will typically yield surprising results‚ try it!

According to the U.S. Council of Environmental Quality‚ "Cancer risk among people using chlorinated water is as much as 93% higher than among those whose water does not contain chlorine."

There is a lot of well-founded concern about chlorine. When chlorine is added to our water‚ it combines with other natural compounds to form Trihalomethanes (chlorination byproducts)‚ or THMs. These chlorine by-products trigger the production of free radicals in the body‚ causing cell damage‚ and are highly carcinogenic. Chlorine is also suspected to contribute to hardening of the arteries‚ the primary cause of heart disease.

"We are learning the hard way that all the time we thought we were preventing epidemics of one disease‚ we were creating another. Two decades after the start of chlorinating our drinking water the present epidemic of heart trouble and cancer began."
- Dr. Joseph M. Price‚ PhD

"One common factor amung women with breast cancer is that they all have 50-60% higher levels of these chlorination by-products (THMs) in their fat tissue than women without breast cancer..."

"Up to 2/3 of the harmful effects of chlorine are due to inhalation and skin absorption while showering."
- The American Journal Of Public Health

It is also clear and experts agree... that chlorine represents a very real and serious threat to our health and should be removed both from the water we drink and the water we shower with.

Health and Medicine in the News

Headline: Study: Parasite survives higher chlorine levels

Newspaper Article Synopsis:

The parasite cryptosporidium can survive in high chlorine levels in water parks and pools. A new study found that the organism can survive even 48 hours in the recommended federal levels fo 10 parts per million.

Newspaper Article Source:

News Services. Study: Parasite survives higher chlorine levels. Star Tribune, 1999 August 8: E5(col. 6).

Journal Article Citation:

Carpenter C., et al. Clorine disinfection of recreational water for cryptosporidium parvum. Emerging Infectious Diseases 1999 July-August; 5(4): 579-584.



Summary: Health concerns of chlorine exposure include, but are not limited to: possible increased risk of miscarriage, birth defects, rectal and bladder cancer, respiratory complaints, corrosion of the teeth, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis. There is an alarming lack of comprehensive test data.

Note: To test for chlorine, use an ordinary pool test kit.


PHILADELPHIA, Pa., Feb 1, 1999 / PRNewswire/ -- The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has set a maximum limit for chlorine in drinking water that is 33% higher than chlorine used in pool water. Pool chemical suppliers instruct pool owners to limit the chlorine level to between 1.0 - 3.0 milligrams per liter (mg/l). On February 16, the new maximum of 4.0 mg/l chlorine in drinking water will become effective nationwide.

The given justification for 4.0 mg/l chlorine in drinking water is that, under federal law, water companies must ensure a minimum of 0.02 mg/l to customers living at the end of, sometimes, very lengthy water mains. This means that customers living at the front end of the pipe will be drinking water with higher levels of chlorine. (Note: Water treatment facilities that use alternative disinfectant processes to chlorination may be exempt from the 0.02 mg/l chlorine minimum).

On the adverse health effects of chlorinated water, the EPA says, "…studies show an association between bladder and rectal cancer and chlorination byproducts in drinking water….Reports from the older literature stated that chronic exposure to concentrations of chlorine of around 5 ppm {ppm = mg/l}caused respiratory complaints, corrosion of the teeth, inflammation of the mucous membranes of the nose, and increased susceptibility to tuberculosis."

There is a disturbing lack of comprehensive test data on the health effects of chlorine. The EPA says that "Limited information is available on the chronic effects of chlorine in humans." And, "…no information is available on the developmental or reproductive effects of chlorine in humans or animals via inhalation exposure or on the carcinogenic effects of chlorine in humans from inhalation exposure." Chlorine is inhaled during activities such as, baths, showers, washing dishes, laundry, and watering lawns.

Peter Montegue, of the Environmental Research Foundation, reported in May 1998, that recent studies by researchers, including the California Department of Health and the U.S. Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, indicate that miscarriages and birth defects, including spina bifida, may be caused by adding chlorine to drinking water.

Many European cities and some Canadian cities have abandoned chlorination in favor of other technologys to disinfect water.

Copyright 2006 by ClearWater Tec S.L.