OF COMBINED COPPER - SILVER - HALOGEN DISINFECTANTS
There are a number of distinct advantages to using electrolytically generated copper and silver ions in combination with low levels of chlorine in place of the higher chlorine levels now used to disinfect swimming pools and spas. One advantage is that they give a fast inactivation rate, comparable to chlorine at the higher dose levels. This is due to the unique synergy between the two modes of disinfection (Copper/Silver/Chlorine).
The fact that a lower chlorine residual can be employed to achieve the same degree of disinfection in itself has many advantages. One advantage is that a lower chlorine residual is easier to maintain. The rates of the decomposition reactions • depend upon the square of the HOCl (or OCl') concentration. When a lower chlorine residual is able to be used, the rate of the decomposition reactions are lower, thus making the lower residual easier to maintain. This minimizes the use of chlorine stabilizers such as Cyanuric acid. The use of chlorine is also reduced and with it the acids and bases used to maintain the pool pH. Finally, labour associated with chlorine and pH monitoring and adjustment is reduced.
Maintaining the chlorine residual at 0.4 ppm also results in lower eye, mucus membrane, and skin irritation and less "chlorine" odour in the pool area as well as the area surrounding indoor pools and spas.
Unlike the chlorine residual, the metal ion residuals are chemically stable and long-lived. They are not subject to the host of reactions that we see for aqueous chlorine. They are stable to temperature and sunlight. The Ionizer Control Box give precise control of their concentration, so monitoring the metal ion residual does not have to be done as frequently as chlorine and pH measurements. Because the electrodes arc solid state, there are no chemicals to handle and since only minute quantities arc ionized, the electrodes have long service periods before change out.
Given the stability of the metal ion residual and the case of maintaining a lower chlorine residual, it is easier to keep up with periods of bather overload than with a conventional pool chlorinating system. It is also be safer because micro-organisms exposed to a combination of metal ion and chlorine disinfection tended to be less invasive than micro-organisms exposed to chlorine only. Also. it is more difficult for micro-organisms to develop resistance to two different disinfection mechanisms instead of one. Finally, silver ion is easily adsorbed to surfaces and prevents the formation of biofilms .
Since chlorine still must be used in conjunction with ionizers, the formation of THM's and chloramines is unavoidable. However, since lower amounts of chlorine are used and consumed in pools with ionizers, there are lower amounts of these compounds being formed.
Many studies (see our scientific library) conducted world-wide have shown copper-silver-ions when used in combination with reduced levels of Chlorine have a synergistic effect, and offer a dual safety mechanism for safer water.
OF COPPER/SILVER IONIZATION
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